Presents the span of control formulas created by V A Graicunas. PDF | On, Fred Nickols and others published The Span of Control and the Formulas of V.A. Graicunas thought the theoretical evidence in favor of limiting the span of. control .. A Control Theory View of Human Behavior and Performance. Span of control is the term now used more commonly in business management, particularly Theories about the optimum span of control go back to V. A. Graicunas. In he used assumptions about mental capacity and attention span to.

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Inhe published a paper called ” Relationship in Organisation. The main thrust of Urwick’s article was to counter the arguments being made against limits on the span of control. What are Functions of Development Banks? The relevant notations and elements are provided below and subsequently illustrated using Graicunas’ example of a superior, Tom, who has two subordinates, Dick and Harry. It was assumed, that no manager would be capable of supervising more than direct subordinates.

Similarly, a lower-level manager should not have more than 20 subordinates. Adding a sixth subordinate more than doubles complexity again, increasing the number of relationships from about to Cross relationships between individual subordinates.

Fourth is a commendable desire to shorten the chain of command.

This requirement necessitates achieving and maintaining some balance of power. I honored that request and then it occurred to me that others might be interested, too, and so I’ve put up this page on my web site. When a particular amount is raised t Oof Disclaimer Privacy Contact. There are instead several factors influencing the balance between the desired level of control, and the manageability of the organization.


Graicunas also pointed to what he saw as an error in thinking, namely, that the relationships to be managed consisted only of those between the superior and individual subordinates. Consequently, for a long time, finding the optimum span of control has been a major challenge to organization design.

Maximum Case Subordinates are responsible for interdependent work or units Kind of Relationship. The situation seems to be pretty much the same as it was when Graicunas and Urwick were making their arguments.

The Span of Control – the formulas of V A Graicunas

Thus, there is a possible trade-off to be made in an attempt to balance these possibly opposing tendencies. In January ofI had occasion to post to an HR list a comment about span of control and the formulas of V.

According to Hugh Dalton Span of control is the term now used more commonly in business management, particularly human resource management. Meaning Definition Process Articles.

Span of Control: The Formulas of V. A. Graicunas

Graicunas and, later, Urwick, both noted the existence of pressures to increase the span of control. Since a Fayol bridge is not limited to a certain functional area within the organization, but can span over functional boundaries, e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Theories about the optimum span of control go back to V. Direct single relationships between superior and individual subordinates.

Regardless of these considerations, the number of relationships a superior must attend to rises exponentially after the fourth subordinate. Lyndall Urwick developed a theory based on geographical dispersion tueory the need for face to face meetings.

Difference Between Authority and Power in Manageme So, as the number of subordinates increases arithmetically, the number of relationships among them also increases almost geometrically. Graicunas Theory of Span of Control Vytautas Andrius Graiciunas was a Lithuanian french management consultant, management theor Therefore, a top-level manager should not have more than 6 subordinates.


Span of control

He provided two sets of formulas, one for situations in which relationships between two subordinates are counted once and one for situations in which they are counted twice. He referred to the first situation as “maximum” and the second as “minimum” and provided formulas for both situations.

These figures were tempered with considerations of the scope and scale of the work involved and for which the subordinate was responsible. Therefore, other mechanisms had to be found for dealing with the dilemma of maintaining managerial control, while keeping cost and time at a reasonable level, thus making the span of control a critical figure for the organization. The span of control is a perennial topic in discussions of management. Graicunas, as the number of subordinates increases arithmetically like 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, etc.

This page was last edited on 11 Julyat What is Job Enrichment? He gives more importance to the relationships. Second, is the tendency to build empires.

Regarding b above, it is worth noting that Dick’s relationship with Harry differs from Harry’s relationship with Dick. Meaning Features Steps Import The fundamental question, of course, was and still is how many is too many?