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The mechanism of osmoregulation involves osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus that control the release of anti-diuretic hormone ADH and stimulate thirst. Extra-renal baroreceptors are stretch receptors located in the carotid sinuses, the aortic arch and the atria.


Therapy with loop diuretics, by inhibition of sodium and chloride reabsorption, can therefore decrease magnesium reabsorption, resulting in magnesium depletion. Other factors controlling anti-diuretic hormone release Nausea causes brief but potent stimulation of ADH release. There seems to be no mechanism to protect against hypermagnesaemia, which occurs if intake is maintained in the face of declining renal function.

Each of the compartments contains a principal solute, which is confined largely to that compartment and therefore acts as the main osmotic agent. The distal nephron regulates renal potassium excretion under the control of aldosterone.

Movement of water between compartments: Houston, we have a problem! Measured osmolality incorporates all solutes within the sample that are capable of generating an osmotic force.

Balance hidroelectrolítico neonantal by on Prezi

Endogenous opiates, high doses of hidroelectrolltico and drugs including chlorpropamide stimulate release of ADH, whereas ethanol inhibits it. In some disease states the relationship between effective circulating volume and extracellular volume breaks down.

The differences between osmoregulation and volume regulation are emphasized by considering manoeuvres that would perturb the homeostasis of the three fluid compartments. These events concentrate the urine, conserving water and returning osmolality to normal. It is accompanied by anions, principally chloride and bicarbonate.


Creating downloadable prezi, be patient. Within the confined space of the skull, uncontrolled cerebral oedema results in seizures, coma and death.

The converse occurs if sodium intake falls. Present to your audience Start remote presentation.

Changes in sodium balance lead to changes in plasma volume and are sensed principally through changes in the circulation. It seems to act on the distal nephron and there is some evidence that it might be more important than ANP. ADH also stimulates distal tubular potassium excretion.

These effects are mediated by specific angiotensin II receptors on the surface of target cells. ADH stimulates potassium excretion in the distal nephron.

This process will continue, thereby increasing the hydrostatic pressure within this compartment. Fluid and electrolyte management in the very low birth weight neonate.


Conversely, low distal flow and less efficient clearance of secreted potassium within the lumen would be expected to produce a less favourable electrochemical gradient for continued potassium hidroelextrolitico. Aldosterone has a major role in potassium balance, stimulating potassium secretion from the luminal membrane of the principal cells of the cortical collecting duct.

As the principal solute within the extracellular compartment, sodium balance is intimately related to body water content.

These relay through the vasomotor centre in the brainstem to the sympathetic nervous system. Water is able hidroelectolitico pass freely between these compartments and the distribution of water is therefore determined by osmotic pressure. J Clin Invest ; Regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance Jonathan D louden Abstract The three fluid compartments of the body are interdependent. These systems must also be able to accommodate changes in salt intake.


Ann Intern Med ; Sensitivity of balaance and volume receptors The osmotic stimulus for ADH release is much more sensitive than the volume-directed stimulus. Pressure natriuresis Changes in blood volume directly alter cardiac output and blood pressure. Hidreolectrolitico antidiuretic mechanism not regulated by extracellular fluid tonicity. Volume regulation overrides osmoregulation.

Transcription and translation of RNA produces new sodium channels, which are baalnce into the luminal membrane. Related publications Share Embed Add to favorites Comments. Conversely, volume depletion stimulates RAS activity and aldosterone in order to increase sodium and water retention, but aldosterone-driven potassium secretion might be expected to balahce potassium depletion.

ADH is produced in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, and then migrates along the axons of these neurones into the posterior pituitary Figure 2. The sensory limb of these feedback loops comprises direct stimulation by intra-renal baroreceptors and the macula densa of the distal tubule and indirect stimulation by extra-renal baroreceptors. The signal is relayed to the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, resulting in ADH release.

Like other steroid hormones, aldosterone enters the cytosol of its target cell, where it attaches to its receptor then enters the nucleus.